Theoretical Weights of Material:



Construction Material


  • Cement                                         1440 kg/m3
  • Steel                                              7850 kg/m3
  • Bricks                                            1600 – 1900 kg/m3                            
  • 20 mm gravel                              1750 kg/m3
  • R.C.C.                                            2500 kg/m3
  • P.C.C.                                             2400 kg/m3
  • Aluminium                                   2710 kg/m3
  • Brass                                              8525 kg/m3
  • Copper                                           8920 kg/m3
  • Stainless Steel                               7900 kg/m3
  • Wood (Oak)                                    600 – 700 kg/m3
  • Water                                              1000 kg/m3
  • Ice                                                   920 kg/m3






















AutoCad 2D & 3D Basics

AutoCad 2D & 3D Basics


“Everything in this world is easy unless you take the first step.”


The best way to learn the AutoCad for the beginners who have not taken any courses for learning the same and also for those who have zero knowledge of its operation, is to install the AutoCad in your comp and try operating every command as per my tuts everyday. It does not matter which upgraded version of AutoCad software you use as long as you know the shortcut keys of the command. I assure you; within no time you will boost your confidence level in learning the software. 


  • AutoCad is a software program which has been used in various industries for many years. This software can help architects, designers, engineers, etc…


  • This particular product is used for the engineering of new bridges, buildings, stadiums, homes, electrical and so much more.


  • This software is actually very helpful for engineering students, especially those that wish to have an impact on their engineering course.


  • This software is so easy to use and offers the ease of cut, copy and paste, saving time, energy and making it easy to use once you know how.


  • Hundreds of people attend AutoCad classes every year to add to their growing resume, making them more appealing to prospective employers and increasing their chances of being accepted for promotion.


I will be sharing my notes of AutoCad that I had prepared during my engineering days in the form of pictorial representation. Hope it would be beneficial to all my upcoming civil engineering friends. Any feedbacks and comments are appreciated. Also don’t forget to like my post if you find it worthy.  Have a nice day !!! God bless you all.


AutoCad tutorial comprising of 22 pages. Hope it would be easy and simple for you to understand. Lets begin…

AutoCad - 1












































Good day, pals !!! 










































































Reconciliation of steel

Reconciliation of steel


  • Length of one rod from each diameter is to be measured and written in Stock Register.


  • Weight of rods vary from the standard weight.


  • Calculating the weight of steel based on the sample unit weight is necessary to avoid manipulation by the Supplier.


  • This actual weight of steel is required for the periodical Reconciliation of Steel.


  • Say, for example

100 MT of 16mm Ø bars of Fe500 grade are required to procure. Assume the weight of bar received is 1.63 kg/Rm.

⇒ Total Weight of Steel received  =  100,000 kg

⇒ Standard Weight of Steel  =  1.58 kg/m

⇒ ∴ Length of Steel received  =  100,000 / 1.63  =   61,349.693 m

⇒ But the length of Steel as per Standard weight  =  100,000 / 1.58  =  63,291.139 m

⇒ Loss of Weight  =  ( 1.63 – 1.58 ) / 1.58  =  3.16 %

This is the Rolling Margin in Reinforcement Steel.

The Allowable deviation in Rolling Margin in R/f Steel ( IS 1786 ) :

8 mm to 10 mm     :     ± 7.0 %

12 mm to 16 mm    :     ± 5.0 %

20 mm & above      :     ± 3.0 %

⇒ Weight computed by measurement & Standard weight

                          = 61,349.693  x  1.58  =   96,932.50 kg

⇒ Loss of Weight   =  100,000  –  96,932.50  =  3067.50 kg













For easy remembrance of the Conversions-


There is an equal importance to both English and metric systems in our path.


I have come across many times to an situation where most civil engineering students find it very difficult to work with the British Systems of measurement as they are use to metric systems only.


These conversions are for those fellow friends who are confused and find it bit tough to convert the respective units. Hey pals, its time to play with these conversion factors without any hesitation….



 Conversion of               Approx Conversion               Accurate Conversion                                               for easy remembrance

  • m to ft                                   x     3                                             x     3.278
  • ft to m                                   x     0.3                                         x     0.305
  • sq.m to sq.ft                        x     10                                            x     10.76
  • sq.ft to sq.m                        x     0.09                                         x     0.0929
  • cum to cub.ft                       x     35                                           x     35.315
  • cub ft to cum                       x     0.028                                     x     0.0283  



Foot-Inch Conversion :

1 foot = 12 inches

To Convert, ft to inches   →      Multiply by  12

Inches to ft   →       Divide by  12


Consider an example: We got to add………7′ 10″   +    8’5″

  • Just add foot with foot & inches with inches

=   ( 7′  +  8′ )   +    (  10″  +  5″  )

=  15′  +  15″

Now divide by 12 to convert inches to ft

=   15′  +  ( 15 / 12 )’

=   15′  +  1.25′

=  16.25′


To convert this 0.25 into iches,   x  by 12

i.e.  0.25  x  12   =   3″

Thus we would have 16′ 3″.



Have a nice day civil engineering fellas !!! Its an pretty easy concept but have due importance at every stage of civil engineering work. Hope you enjoy it.





List of various tests on Construction Material

This is a list of various tests to be carried on the construction material like cement, sand, aggregates and concrete.

  • Cement :
  1. Fineness Test
  2. Standard Consistency Test
  3. Initial & Final Setting Time of Cement
  4. Soundness of Cement
  5. Compressive Strength Test of Cement


  • Fine Aggregates : 
  1.  Fineness Modulus of F.A.
  2. Bulking of Sand
  3. Impurities in Sand


  • Coarse Aggregates :
  1. Fineness of C.A.
  2. Aggregate Crushing Value
  3. Aggregate Impact Value
  4. Flakiness Index of Aggregate
  5. Abrasion Test of Aggregate
  6. Gradation Test off Aggregate


  • Concrete :

#  Workability of Concrete

  1. Slump Cone Test
  2. Compaction Factor Test
  3. Vee-Bee Consistometer Test
  4. Flow Table Test


#   Strength Test on Concrete

  1. Compressive Strength Test on Concrete
  2. Split Tensile Strength Test on Concrete
  3. Mix Design
  4. Young’s Modulus & Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete




Do comment or like the post because your feedbacks would encourage me for posting the various other relevant topics of civil engineering that would ultimately help my fellow friends. Have a nice day!!

Earned Value Concept – My Understanding

Earned Value Concept – My Understanding
  • Lets understand the earned value concept by taking an simple example with lower values for efficient understanding and easy elaboration.
  • P.V.  =  Planned Value
  • A.C.  =  Actual Cost
  • B.A.C.  =  Budget At Completion
  • E.V.  =  Earned Value
  • C.V.  =  Cost Variance
  • S.V.  =  Schedule Variance
  • C.P.I.  =   Cost Performance Index
  • S.P.I  =   Schedule Performance Index


  • Suppose I want to complete with 3 jobs and I plan Rs.10 for each job. So this goes as —


                                                            Job                      P.V.

                                                        A                     Rs.10

                                                        B                     Rs.10

                                                        C                     Rs.10


  • Now I have planned to spend Rs.30 i.e. (Budget At Completion, BAC). But in actual, I have spend @Rs.25 i.e. Actual Cost, AC.


                                 Job                   P.V.                         A.C.

                                   A                    Rs.10                      Rs.15

                                   B                    Rs.10                      Rs.10

                                   C                    Rs.10                      Rs.00


  • If we look at the surface level, we would think that the cost-wise we are not performing good, but to know exactly how are we performing cost-wise and schedule-wise, we need to get the Earned Value.


  • To get the earned value, we would require the actual % progress as follows —
  • We know that we have spend Rs.25 for the Jobs A & B, but we do not know how much work we have performed. Therefore, we cannot compare the planned value & the actual cost in deciding the performance.     


        Job                    P.V.                          A.C.                % Progress             

          A                     Rs.10                      Rs.15                     100%

          B                     Rs.10                      Rs.10                     50%

          C                     Rs.10                      Rs.00                     0%


  • Now consider Job A, you have planned  Rs.10 but the actual cost incurred to complete the work, costs you  Rs.15 as whole.


  • So though you have spend  Rs.15 actually, but you are budgeted to spend only  Rs.10. Thus the earned value is the value that you have budgeted to spend and not the actual cost.


  • Thus, EV =   % Progress   x    P.V.


         Job                    P.V.                          A.C.              % Progress            E.V.

          A                     Rs.10                      Rs.15                     100%                 Rs.10

          B                     Rs.10                      Rs.10                     50%                   Rs.5

          C                     Rs.10                      Rs.00                     0%                    Rs.0

     TOTAL                Rs.30                     Rs.25                                                Rs.15


  • In Summary, we get    

          BAC =  Rs.30

          (P.V) =  Rs.20 ……….This is the planned value as of today for 2 jobs because we haven’t yet begin with 3rd Job. 

          A.C. =  Rs.25

          E.V. =  Rs.15


  • So now, we can conclude that; we planned to spend  Rs.20 for which we are supposed to complete the two jobs, but we have actually spend  Rs.25.


  • But what is the actual work we completed and how much its worth?  So the worth of work we completed is  Rs.15.



Now we will consider what is the Cost Variance, CV & Schedule Variance, SV —


  • Cost Variance, CV  =  Earned Value – AC   =     15 – 25     =   – Rs.10

i.e. (we have spend  Rs.10 extra for the job)


  • Cost Performance Index, CPI  =  EV / AC   =   15 / 25    =    0.6

CPI shows the efficiency of the utilization of the resources on the project.


  • Schedule Variance, SV   =    Earned Value  – PV  =   15 – 20   =   – Rs.5


  • Schedule Performance Index, SPI  =  EV / PV  =   15 / 20  =  0.75


Thus we have,

CPI = 0.6

SPI = 0.75


Anything less than 1 means BAD. It indicates that you are Over-budget as well as Behind the Schedule.

Hope the concept was pretty understood by the mere example. Have a nice day!













































Productivity in Construction

Productivity in Construction

Increase in the productivity does not depend upon increasing the man-power.


Productivity is an efficiency or the performance to carry out the alloted task.

Greater is the productivity, lesser are the allocations of more man power, thus results in saving of the resources.


Productivity can be calculated as per the convenience in terms of quantity of work or in terms of man-hours.


Here, we have calculated productivity in terms of…..( No.of Labors / Quantity of work )


Consider an example, For Backfilling

The actual no. of labors = 4 Nos.

Quantity of work required to be done = 20 cum.

Thus to perform the work of 20 cum, the average productivity of 4 labors is,

                                     4 labors / 20 cum  =    0.20 labors/cum

i.e. For the performance of 1 cum of work, 0.20 labors are required.


The construction industry is booming all round and therefore productivity has recently been an important factor in terms of time, costs and quality triangle.

If we need to increase the productivity, we need to perform the following crucial steps:

                                    A. Grouping

                                    B. Sorting

                                    C. Training

                                    D. Uplift

                                    E. Remuneration

We need to group or categorize the labors and check their productivity based on their previous works.

If 5 groups of labors are performing at different sites, sorting of each labor shall be done individually. Find the productivity of each labor based on his work performance and sort the best from each group.

To others who have entertained lower productivity , uplift them through trainings and various inductions.

Remuneration also plays an important role indirectly, for the attitude towards the work, thus affecting the productivity.

Calculations for Productivity :

  1. Total M/P required   =    Quantity of work    /    Productivity
  2. Daily M/P required   =     Total M/P    /     Duration
  3. Total Duration required    =   Quantity of work   /    (Daily M/P required  x                        Productivity)

M/P : Manpower